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JavaScript Math Reference

Math is a built-in object that has properties and methods for mathematical constants and functions. Not a function object.

The Math Object

The Math object allows you to perform mathematical tasks on numbers.

Unlike the other global objects, Math is not a constructor.

All properties and methods of Math are static and can be called by using Math as an object, without creating it.

For example you refer to the constant pi as Math.PI and you call the sine function as Math.sin(x), where x is the method's argument.

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You can learn more about Math in our JavaScript Math Tutorial.


Math Object Properties

The following table lists the properties of the Math object:

Property Description
E Returns Euler's number, the base of natural logarithms, e, approximately 2.718
LN2 Returns the natural logarithm of 2, approximately 0.693
LN10 Returns the natural logarithm of 10, approximately 2.302
LOG2E Returns the base 2 logarithm of e, approximately 1.442
LOG10E Returns the base 10 logarithm of e, approximately 0.434
PI Returns PI, approximately 3.14
SQRT1_2 Returns the square root of 1/2, approximately 0.707
SQRT2 Returns the square root of 2, approximately 1.414

Math Object Methods

The following table lists the methods of the Math object:

Method Description
abs(x) Returns the absolute value of x
acos(x) Returns the arccosine of x, in radians
acosh(x) Returns the hyperbolic arccosine of x
asin(x) Returns the arcsine of x, in radians
asinh(x) Returns the hyperbolic arcsine of x
atan(x) Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians
atan2(y, x) Returns the arctangent of the quotient of its arguments
atanh(x) Returns the hyperbolic arctangent of x
cbrt(x) Returns the cubic root of x
ceil(x) Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to a number
cos(x) Returns the cosine of x (x is in radians)
cosh(x) Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x
exp(x) Returns the value of Ex
floor(x) Returns the largest integer less than or equal to a number
log(x) Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of x
max(n1, n2, n3, ..., nX) Returns the number with the highest value
min(n1, n2, n3, ..., nX) Returns the number with the lowest value
pow(x, y) Returns the value of x to the power of y
random() Returns a random number between 0 and 1
round(x) Rounds x to the nearest integer
sin(x) Returns the sine of x (x is in radians)
sinh(x) Returns the hyperbolic sine of x
sqrt(x) Returns the square root of x
tan(x) Returns the tangent of an angle
tanh(x) Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number
trunc(x) Returns the integer part of a number (x)

Note: The trigonometric functions (sin(), cos(), tan(), asin(), acos(), atan(), atan2()) expect or return angles in radians.

To convert radians to degrees, divide by (Math.PI / 180), and multiply by this to convert the other way.